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Unit 4
Well-being
4.1 Health
Wound — an injury, such as a cut or tear, to a (usually external) part of the body;

bleed — to lose blood through an injured blood vessel;

bandage — a strip of gauze or similar material used to protect or support a wound or injury;

bruise — a mark that you get on your body if you are hit or if you knock against something;

scratch — a slight injury or mark caused by rubbing against a rough surface;

brain concussion — a head injury that makes someone feel ill or become unconscious for a short time;

sprain — a painful injury that you get when you suddenly stretch or turn a joint too much;

an allergy a medical condition that causes you to react badly or feel sick when you eat or touch a particular substance;

asthma — a respiratory condition where spasms in the lungs cause difficulty in breathing. An asthmatic uses an inhaler to calm the spasms;

a backache — a prolonged pain in the back;

a broken leg - when a bone in the leg is broken. A broken leg is put in a cast to help immobilize the leg so that it heals quicker. Other parts of the body with bones can also be broken, for example a broken arm, a broken wrist etc;

cancer — a serious disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells that kill normal body cells in a part of the body;
a cold — a common viral infection which causes mucus to run from the nose, gives a sore throat and often includes sneezing;

a cough — the act of expelling air from the lungs with a sudden sharp sound;

diarrhoea (America English: diarrhea) — an illness in which faeces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form;

an earache — pain inside the ear;

a fever — an abnormally high body temperature, usually accompanied by shivering and a headache;

flu — flu is the common name given for influenza. It is a contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages that causes fever and sever aching;

a headache — a continuous pain in the head;

measles — an infectious viral disease causing fever and a red rash on the skin. It typically occurs in childhood.

a rash — a lot of small red spots on the skin that are usually itchy;

a sore throat — a condition of pain in the throat, typically caused by inflammation of it;

a stomachache (US) — stomach ache (Brit) — the pain in a person’s belly. Notice how the word can be spelled together or as two words, depending on the country;

sunburn — when the skin becomes red with inflammation as a result of overexposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun;

a toothache — the pain in a tooth or teeth.
Phrasal verbs:

Black out - if you black out, you lose consciousness.
"When Tony saw the needle, he blacked out."


Go under the knife - if a person goes under the knife, they have surgery.
"I'm not worried about the anaesthetic. I've been under the knife several times".

Throw up - to vomit.

Call in sick - if you call in sick, you inform your employer that you will be absent because you are ill.

Pass away - to die.

Come to - to become conscious.

Pass out - faint, lose consciousness.

Get over - to recover from something.
It's taken me ages to get over the flu.

Come down with - become sick (not seriously).
I think I'm coming down with the flu.

Throw up - be sick, vomit.
The baby's thrown up her dinner.
Idioms:

To look the picture of health — means to look extremely healthy.

Off colour — if you are off colour, you look or feel ill.

One foot in the grave — a person who is either very old or very ill and close to death has one foot in the grave.

Blind as a bat — someone whose vision is very poor, or who is unable to see anything, is (as) blind as a bat.

As white as a sheet — said about someone whose face is very pale because of illness, shock or fear.

On one’s last legs
 — if you are on your last legs, you are in a very weak condition or about to die.

To (have) pins and needles
 — is to have a tingling sensation in a part of the body, for example an arm or a leg, when it has been in the same position for a long time.

Nurse someone back to health — to look after a sick person until he recovers.
1
Lets test your vocabulary.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
Many employees in our company called ____sick because of the flu.
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The wound is still__________.
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I lay curled up for so long that I had ____________ in my legs."
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He is fortunate to have such a caring wife.She was glad to__________ him back to health.
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I hit my arm hard against the table and now I've got a big_________.
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When he ___________, he was lying on the floor with his hands tied behind his back.
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"I was so sick that I felt as though I was !"
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People everywhere were ___________ from the heat.
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Without his glasses, the old man is as blind________.
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What's the matter with Tom? He looks a bit _________ today.
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Look through the words again, please.
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2
Watch the video.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
Sewage or feces infested water is the ideal breeding ground for:
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When exposed to unsafe water, children under five often:
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Which two chemicals are commonly used to disinfect water?
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Look through the words again, please.
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Nice:)
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3
Creative writing: use your active vocabulary when answering the questions (3-4 sentences), please.
Many people in the world have no access to clean drinking water. What may be the cause of this?
Have you completed the lesson?
4.2 Mind and body
Wellness - an overall state of well-being, or total health;

nutrition - nutrition is the provision to cells and organisms of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life;

nutritional deficiency - is an inadequate supply of essential nutrients (such as vitamins and minerals);

energy balance - is the balance of calories consumed through eating and drinking compared to calories burned;

basic nutrients - Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat;

prevention
- practicing healthy and safety habits to remain free of disease and injury;

consequence - the result of an action;

blood pressure — the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries and veins, varying during the heartbeat cycle, and according to a person’s age, health and physical condition;

hormones - body chemicals produced by ductless glands that regulate the activity of different body cells; the cause of physical and emotional changes;

distres - ngative stress;

eustress - positive stress;

fatigue - a tired feeling that lowers one’s level of activity;

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - Fatigue that is long-term;

psychosomatic - involving both the body and mind;

defense mechanisms — strategies used to deal with stressful situations;

mental disorders
- mental and emotional problems;

hypochondria - a somatoform disorder in which one experiences a preoccupation with the body and fear of presumed diseases.
Phrasal verbs:

To work out — to train the body by physical exercise;

(be) run down — person who is run down is in poor physical condition;

to in (the) prime of one's life — to have the time in a person's life when they are in their best physical condition.

Idioms:

In bad shape
— in bad physical condition. alive and kicking -to continue to be well, healthy or successful;

recharge one's batteries — when you recharge your batteries, you take a break from a tiring or stressful activity in order to relax and recover your energy;


bag of bones — to say that someone is a bag of bones means that they are extremely thin;

have a hangover — to have a hangover means to suffer from the unpleasant after-effects of drinking too much alcohol.

1
Lets test your vocabulary.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
The nurse spent all day taking people's blood _______at the hospital.
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The old lady is completely _____________ from lack of proper food.
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Sam is completely overworked. He needs a holiday ___________.
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When he came home from the war he was so thin, just ________.
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Many young people _______________ after a party or celebration.
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I work very long hours and I'm almost ready to drop with _________.
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Nick loves to talk about health troubles, looking up diseases in the internet and visiting the doctors. To my mind he's suffering from:
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Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat are the basiс ________
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Ben's allergy has nothing to do with school dust, the doctor said that he was afraid of his teacher, so the disorder is _______ .
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I was shocked when we won the lottery and lost me consciousness. I've never heard that positive events also can cause stress, it's called_______.
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Look through the words again, please.
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Nice:)
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Good)))
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Cool:)
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2
Watch the video.

3
Creative writing: use your active vocabulary when answering the questions (3-4 sentences), please.
  1. In the video you are shown one simple technique of releasing stress. What other methods do you use to relax and calm down?
  2. Have ever experienced eu-stress (positive) in your life? What happened?
  3. Many people in the modern world suffer from Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)(that is long-term tiredness). How do you recharge your batteries and help your body and your mind to restore?
Have you completed the lesson?
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