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Unit 6
World
6.1 World around you
The coast — the land next to or close to the sea;

cliffs — rocky mountains;

pebble beaches
— beaches with small stones;

sand dunes — areas of sand that the wind blows into small hills;

bays — A bay is a body of water partially surrounded by land;

mountain summit
— the peak;

valleys — low areas encircled by the mountains;

foothills of the mountains — the small hills nearest mountains;

forests — woods (smaller forests);

lakes — areas of water which are enclosed;

streams — narrow paths of water;

hedges (or hedgerows)
 — a natural barrier created by small trees and plants which grow close together;

plains — vast areas of open, flat land called, which are used to grow various crops;

soil — material in the top layer of the surface of the earth;

oxygen — a colorless, odorless gas that is essential for respiration;

evergreen — a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year;

pine — a coniferous tree;

oak — a deciduous tree of the genus Quercus;

sun — the star that is the source of light and heat for the planets in the solar system;

moon — the natural satellite of the Earth;

sunshine — the rays of the sun;

insect - small air-breathing arthropod;

fur - dense coat of fine silky hairs on mammals;

predator — any animal that lives by preying on other animals;

prey — animal hunted or caught for food.




Phrasal verbs:

Throw out/away — get rid off;

cool off — lower the heat/to calm down;

dry out — allow the water to evaporate;

run out — not have any more of something.
Idioms:

A drop in the ocean — if an amount is a drop in the ocean, it’s a very small portion of the amount that’s needed;

a ray of sunshine — something is a ray of sunshine if it brings happiness to someone;

a voice (crying) in the wilderness
— you’re a voice in the wilderness, or a voice crying in the wilderness, if you’re expressing an unpopular opinion or insight;

beat around the bush | beat about the bush — if you beat around the bush, or beat about the bush, you don’t say something directly, usually because you don’t want to upset the person you’re talking to;

down to earth — if someone is down to earth, they are practical and sensible.
1
Lets test your vocabulary.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
Where I live there are lots of hills. Between these, there are
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I don't live near a river, but we have a small __ outside the house.
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The money they donated didn't help at all, that sum was just ______________ .
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Can you tell me truth and stop beating about the_______.
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Be careful when you walk along these __ as there's a very sharp drop into the sea!
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Your sister has such a sweet nature-she's a real _________in my life.
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Do you prefer a __ beach or a sandy beach?
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The coastline isn't straight, and there are a number of small __
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Mark always thinks about the practical outcome of his decisions, he is ___________.
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It was difficult to breathe high up in the mountains because of the lack of_________.
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Look through the words again, please.
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2
Watch the video "The Arctic vs. the Antarctic" by Camille Seaman and do the tasks below.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
Arktikos means:
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What is unique about the South Pole?
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How deep is the water at the North Pole?
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At least 98% of Antarctica is covered in ice at least one mile in thickness.
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Look through the words again, please.
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6.2 Nature atrage
Avalanche — a slide of large masses of snow, ice and mud down a mountain;

blizzard — a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds;

cyclone — a violent storm in which air moves in a circular direction;

drought — a shortage of rainfall;

earthquake — vibration from underground movement along a fault plane;

richter scale — logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the magnitude of an earthquake;
fatal — bringing death;

flood — the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto land;

forest fire — an uncontrolled fire in a wooded area;

gale — a strong wind moving 45-90 knots;
hailstorm — a storm during which ice drops falls;

sandstorm — a windstorm that lifts up clouds of dust or sand;

snowstorm — a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds;

lightning — flash of light from an electric discharge in the atmosphere;

tornado — a violently destructive windstorm occurring over land

tsunami — a cataclysm resulting from a destructive sea wave;

whirlwind — a column of air spinning around itself;

heat wave
— a wave of unusually hot weather;

casualty — someone injured or killed in an accident;

shelter — covering that provides protection from the weather.

Idioms:

Boil the ocean — If you are trying to boil the ocean, you are attempting to do something that's impossible or too big, or making something too complex;

break the ice — when you break the ice, you get over any initial embarrassment or shyness when you meet someone for the first time and start conversing;

clear as mud — If something is as clear as mud, then it is very confusing and unclear;

full of hot air — someone who is full of hot air talks a lot of rubbish. Their life easieris false as all situations come with their own set of problems;

make a mountain out of a molehill — If somebody makes a mountain out of a molehill, they exaggerate the importance or seriousness of a problem;



make waves
— If someone makes waves, they cause a lot of trouble or stir things up a lot;

no smoke without fire — this idiom means that when people suspect something, there is normally a good reason for the suspicion, even if there is no concrete evidence. ('Where's there's smoke, there's fire' is also used.);

not the only pebble on the beach — If something is not the only pebble on the beach, there are other possibilities or alternatives it;

ride with the tide — If you ride with the tide, you accept the majority decision.
1
Lets test your vocabulary.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
Many people try to make a video of_____that reaches land. You should be afraid of them, because it can destroy a coastal region in minutes.
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Farmers most affected by the ___________- hope that there may yet be sufficient rain early in the growing season
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Riverside communities were moved to the growing city as huge areas were ________
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If there's a _______ coming your way, you better hold onto your new hat and your little dog, Toto, too, because this is an extremely strong wind.
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If there's a _______ coming your way, you better hold onto your new hat and your little dog, Toto, too, because this is an extremely strong wind.
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Temperature records fell across Europe last week as a suffocating _____________ swept up from the Sahara.
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Air strikes caused 519 civilian ____________, 150 of whom were children.
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Yesterday's ____________ killed a party of skiers and destroyed several trees.
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If you get lost in the woods during a rain storm, the first thing you should do is seek _____________, or a protected place to stay.
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If Muffin, your kitten, is stuck in a tree, you can get out your ladder and climb up to ____________ her.
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Look through the words again, please.
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2
Watch the video.
3
Creative writing.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate words/word combinations.
Start test
In 479 BC the Persian soldiers benefited from the case when coastal waters left the area.
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Tsunamis are unrelated to gravitational force of the Sun and the moon.
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Tsunamis are caused by energy originating underwater.
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It's easy to detect tsunami even if it's far from the coast.
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Early tsunami detection is more effective than building protective devices.
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Look through the words again, please.
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